Asko Parpola Bibliography Example

  • Kenoyer, J.M., "Ancient Cities of the Indus Valley Civilization"
  • Jansen, Michael, "Mohenjo-Daro, Stadt der Brunnen und Kanale: Wasserluxus vor 4500 Jahren = Mohenjo-Daro, City of Wells and Drains: Water Splendor 4500 years ago"
  • Possehl, G.L., "Indus Age; The Beginnings"
  • Possehl, G.L., "Harappan Civilization: a Recent Perspective"
  • Allchin, F. Raymond, ed., "The Archaeology of Early Historic South Asia: The Emergence of Cities and States"
  • Allchin, Raymond and Bridget, "Origins of a Civilization: The Prehistory and Early Archaeology of South Asia"
  • Chakrabarti, Dilip K., "The Archaeology of Ancient Indian Cities"
  • Gupta, S.P., "The Indus-Saraswati Civilization"
  • Agrawal, D.P., "The Archaeology of India"
  • Fairservis, W.A., Jr., "The Roots of Ancient India"
  • Kenoyer, J.M., ed., "Old Problems and New Perspectives in the Archaeology of South Asia"
  • Allchin, Bridget and F. Raymond, "The Rise of Civilization in India and Pakistan"
  • Possehl, G.L., "Ancient Cities of the Indus"
  • Lal, B.B., "The Earliest Civilization of South Asia"
  • Kenoyer, J.M., ed., "From Sumer to Melluhha: Contributions to the Archaeology of South and West Asia in Memory of George F. Dales, Jr.", Wisconsin Archaeological Report 3, Madison, 1994.
  • Lal, B.B. and S.P. Gupta, "Frontiers of the Indus Civilization"
  • Marshall, Sir John, "Mohenjo-Daro and the Indus Civilization"
  • Piggot, Stuart, "Prehistoric India"
  • Wheeler, R.E.M., "The Indus Civilization"
  • Shaffer, J.G., "The Indus Valley, Baluchistan and Helmand Traditions: Neolithic through Bronze Age", in "Chronologies in Old World Archaeology"
  • Shaffer, J.G. and B.K. Thapar, "Pre-Indus and Early Indus Cultures of Pakistan and India", in "History of Civilization of Central Asia"
  • Mughal, M.R., "Further Evidence of the Early Harappan Culture in the Greater Indus Valley: 1971 – 1990", in "South Asian Studies"
  • Mughal, M.R., "The Rise of Indus Civilization", in "Forgotten Cities on the Indus"
  • Possehl, G.L., "Revolution in the Urban Revolution: the Emergence of the Indus Urbanization", in "Annual Review of Anthropology"
  • Possehl, G.L., "Conclusions: the Early Harappan Stage, a prelude to Civilization?", in "Indus Age: The Beginnings"
  • Jansen, Michael, "Mohenjo-Daro, Stadt der Brunnen und Kanale: Wasserluxus vor 4500 Jahren = Mohenjo-Daro, City of Wells and Drains: Water Splendor 4500 years ago"
  • Wheeler, Sir Robert Eric Mortimer, "Harappa 1946: The Defenses and the Cemetery R37" in "Ancient India"
  • Meadow, Richard H., Jonathan Mark Kenoyer and Rita P. Wright, "Harappan Archaeological Research Project: 1997 Excavations"
  • Meadow, Richard H. and Jonathan Mark Kenoyer, "Excavations at Harappa 1994 – 1995: New Perspectives on Script, Craft activities and city organization" in "South Asian Archaeology 1995"
  • Meadow, Richard H. and Jonathan Mark Kenoyer, "Harappa Excavations 1993: City walls and inscribed materials" in "South Asian Archaeology 1993"
  • Fentress, Marcia A., "The Indus ‘Granaries’: Illusion, Imagination and Archaeological Reconstruction", in "Studies in the Archaeology and Palaeoanthropology of South Asia"
  • These are reports of various Indus sites which have been excavated. These are good for comparison with the two major cities of Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa as well as to study the uniformity of Urban planning within the Indus Civilization.

    1. Bisht, R.S., "Excavations at Dholavira, District Kutch" in "Indian Archaeology 1990-91: A Review"
    2. Bisht, R.S., "Excavations at Dholavira, District Kutch" in "Indian Archaeology 1991-92: A Review"
    3. Dales, G.F. and C.P. Lipo, "Excavations at Sutkagen-dor" in "Explorations of the Makran Coast, Pakistan: A Search for Paradise"
    4. Dales, G.F., "The Balakot Project: Summary of Four Years of Excavations in Pakistan", in "South Asian Archaeology 1977"
    5. Dhavalikar, M.K., "Kuntasi: A Harappan Port in Western India", in "South Asian Achaeology 1989"
    6. Fairservis, W.A., Jr., "Allahdino: An Excavation of a Small Harappan Site", in "Harappan Civilization: A Recent Perspective"
    7. Jarrige, C., "The Mature Indus Phase at Nausharo as seen from a block of Period III" in "South Asian Archaeology 1993"
    8. Jarrige, J.F., ed., "Excavations at Mehrgarh – Nausharo, 22nd Season, 1995 – 1996"
    9. Lal, B.B., "The Earliest Civilization of South Asia"
    10. Mariani, Luca, "The Eastern Residential Area at Shahr-i Sokhta" in "South Asian Archaeology 1989"
    11. Possehl, G.L. and D.P. Mehta, "Excavations at Rojdi, 1992 – 93" in "South Asian Archaeology 1993"
    12. Thapar, B.K., "Recent Archaeological Discoveries in India"
  • Possehl, G.L, "Indus Age – The Writing"
  • Parpola, A., "Deciphering the Indus Script"
  • Zvelebil, K.V., "Dravidian and ‘Harappan’" in "Dravidian Linguistics: an Introduction"
  • Also refer to the General Monographs for introductions and thoughts.
  • Quivron, G., "Incised and Painted marks on the Pottery of Mehrgarh and Nausharo – Balichistan" in "South Asian Archaeology 1995"
  • Pande, B.M., "Inscribed Copper Tablets from Mohenjo-Daro: A Preliminary Analysis" in "Radio Carbon and Indian Archaeology"
  • Pande, B.M., "Inscribed Harappan Material from Kalibangan: Some Remarks on Methodology and Approach" in "Puratattva"
  • Meadow, Richard H. and J.M. Kenoyer, "The Tiny steatite Seals of Harappa: Some Observations on their context and dating" in "South Asian Archaeology 1997"
  • Kenoyer, J.M., "Ornaments styles of the Indus Valley Tradition: Evidence from Recent Excavations in Harappa, Pakistan" in "Paleorient"
  • Kenoyer, J.M., "People and Professions", "Ancient Cities of the Indus Civilization"
  • Jarrige, C., "The Figurines from Nausharo Period I and their further Developments" in "South Asian Archaeology 1995"
  • During-Caspers, E.C.L., "Vanity Portrayed in Clay: the Female terracotta figurines from Harappa" in "South Asian Archaeology 1993"
  • Miller, Daniel, "Ideology and the Harappan Civilization" in "Journal of Anthropological Archaeology"
  • Lamberg-Karlovsky, C.C., "The Indus Civilization: the Case for Caste Formation"
  • Maisels, Charles Keith, "The Indus / ‘Harappan’ / Sarasvati Civilization" in "Early Civilizations of the Old World"
  • Possehl, G.L., "Sociocultural Complexity without the State: the Indus Civilization" in "Archaic States"
  • Kenoyer, J.M., "The Harappan State: Was it or Wasn’t it?" in "From Sumer to Meluhha" edited by J.M. Kenoyer, pp. 71 – 80, 1994.
  • Trade and Interaction with other Civilizations

  • Possehl, G.L., "Indus Age: The Beginnings"
  • Edens, C., "Indus – Arabian Interaction during the Bronze Age: A Review of Evidence" in "Harappan Civilization: A Recent Perspective"
  • Tosi, M., "The Harappan Civilization Beyond the Indian Subcontinent" in "Harappan Civilization: A Recent Perspective"
  • Cleuziou, S., "The Oman Peninsula and the Indus Civilization: A Reassessment" in "Man and Environment"
  • Cleuziou, S. and M. Tosi, "Black Boats of Magan: Some thoughts on Bronze Age Water Transport in Oman and Beyond from the Impresses Bitumen Slabs of Ra’s al-Junayz" in "South Asian Archaeology 1993"
  • Ratnagar, S., "Harappan Trade in its ‘World’ context" in "Man and Environment"
  • Possehl, G.L., "Seafaring Merchants of Meluhha" in "South Asian Archaeology 1995"
  • Lamberg-Karlovsky, C.C., "The Oxus Civilization: the Bronze Age of Central Asia" in "Antiquity"
  • Possehl, G.L., "Meluhha" in "The Indian Ocean in Antiquity"
  • Hiebert, F.T. and C.C. Lamberg-Karlovsky, "Central Asia and the Indo-Iranian Borderlands" in "Iran"
  • Crafts and Technology of Indus Civilization

  • Bhan, K.K., M. Vidale and J.M. Kenoyer, "Harappan Technology: Theories and Methodological Issues" in "Man and Environment" No. 19 (1-2), pp. 141 – 157, 1994.
  • Pracchia, S., M. Tosi and M. Vidale, "On the Type, Distribution and Extent of Craft industries at Mohenjo-Daro" in "South Asian Archaeology 1983"
  • Vidale, M., "Specialized Producers and Urban Elites: On the Role of Craft Industries in Mature Harappan Urban Contexts", in "Old Problems and New Perspectives in the Archaeology of South Asia"
  • Miller, H.M.L., "Metal Processing at Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro: information from non-metal Remains", in "South Asian Archaeology 1993"
  • Mackay, E., "Bead Making in Ancient Sind" in "Journal of the American Oriental Society"
  • Blackman, M.J. and M. Vidale, "The Production and Distribution of Stoneware Bangles at Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa monitored by Chemical Characterization Studies", in "South Asian Archaeology 1989"
  • Barthelemy de Saizieu, B. and A Bouquillon, "Evolution of Glazed Material from the Chalcolithic to the Indus period based on the date of Mehrgarh and Nausharo", in "South Asian Archaeology 1995"
  • Shaffer, J.G., "The Indo-Aryan Invasions: Cultural myth and Archaeological Reality" in "The People of South Asia"
  • Jarrige, J.F., "Continuity and Change in the North Kachi Plain (Baluchistan, Pakistan) at the beginning of the second Millennium BC" in "South Asian Archaeology 1983"
  • Mughal, M.R., "The Decline of the Indus Civilization and the Late Harappan Period in the Indus Valley" in "Lahore Museum Bulletin"
  • Mughal, M.R., "Jhukar and the Late Harappan Cultural Mosaic of the Greater Indus Valley" in "South Asian Archaeology 1989"
  • Erdosy, G., "Language, Material Culture and Ethnicity: Theoretical Perspectives" in "The Indo-Aryans of Ancient South Asia: Language, Material Culture and Ethnicity"
  • Possehl, G.L., "The Transformation of the Indus Civilization" in "Journal of World Prehistory"
  • Elst, Koenraad, "Update on the Aryan invasion debate"
  • Rajaram, Navaratna Srinivasa, "The politics of history: Aryan invasion theory and the subversion of scholarship"
  • Frawley, David, "The myth of the Aryan invasion of India"
  • Knight, Alfred E., "India, from the Aryan invasion to the great Sepoy Mutiny"
  • Asko Parpola (born 1941) is a Finnish Indologist and Sindhologist, current professor emeritus of Indology and South Asian Studies at the University of Helsinki. He specializes in the Indus script.


    Parpola is a brother of the Akkadian language epigrapher Simo Parpola.[1] He is married to Marjatta Parpola, who has authored a study on the traditions of Kerala's Nambudiri Brahmins.[2]


    Parpola's research and teaching interests fall within the following topics:

    • Indus Civilization / Indus script and religion / Corpus of Indus Seals and Inscriptions
    • Veda / Vedic ritual / Samaveda / Jaiminiya Samaveda texts and rituals / Purva-Mimamsa
    • South Asian religions / Hinduism / Saiva and Sakta tradition / Goddess Durga
    • South India / Kerala / Tamil Nadu / Karnataka
    • Sanskrit / Malayalam / Kannada / Tamil / Prehistory of Indian languages
    • Prehistoric archaeology of South Asia and (in broad sense) Central Asia / Coming of the Aryans

    Two significant contributions of Parpola, to the field of decipherment of the Indus script, are the creation of the now universally used classification of Indus valley seals, and the proposed, and much-debated, decipherment of the language of the script.[3]

    Dravidian hypothesis[edit]

    Main article: Indus script

    According to Parpola the Indus script and Harappan language are "most likely to have belonged to the Dravidian family".[4][5] Parpola led a Finnish team in the 1960s-80s that vied with Knorozov's Soviet team in investigating the inscriptions using computer analysis. Based on a proto-Dravidian assumption, they proposed readings of many signs, some agreeing with the suggested readings of Heras and Knorozov (such as equating the "fish" sign with the Dravidian word for fish "min") but disagreeing on several other readings. A comprehensive description of Parpola's work until 1994 is given in his book Deciphering the Indus Script.[6]


    Asko Parpola received the Kalaignar M. Karunanidhi Classical Tamil Award for 2009 on June 23, 2010 at the World Classical Tamil Conference at Coimbatore.


    • 1994: Deciphering the Indus Script, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 9780521430791
    • 2015: The Roots of Hinduism: The Early Aryans and the Indus Civilization, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-022692-3
    • 2008: Is the Indus script indeed not a writing system? In: Airāvati: Felicitation volume in honour of Iravatham Mahadevan: 111–31. VARALAARU.COM, Chennai.


    External links[edit]

    Categories: 1

    0 Replies to “Asko Parpola Bibliography Example”

    Leave a comment

    L'indirizzo email non verrà pubblicato. I campi obbligatori sono contrassegnati *