These are reports of various Indus sites which have been excavated. These are good for comparison with the two major cities of Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa as well as to study the uniformity of Urban planning within the Indus Civilization.
- Bisht, R.S., "Excavations at Dholavira, District Kutch" in "Indian Archaeology 1990-91: A Review"
- Bisht, R.S., "Excavations at Dholavira, District Kutch" in "Indian Archaeology 1991-92: A Review"
- Dales, G.F. and C.P. Lipo, "Excavations at Sutkagen-dor" in "Explorations of the Makran Coast, Pakistan: A Search for Paradise"
- Dales, G.F., "The Balakot Project: Summary of Four Years of Excavations in Pakistan", in "South Asian Archaeology 1977"
- Dhavalikar, M.K., "Kuntasi: A Harappan Port in Western India", in "South Asian Achaeology 1989"
- Fairservis, W.A., Jr., "Allahdino: An Excavation of a Small Harappan Site", in "Harappan Civilization: A Recent Perspective"
- Jarrige, C., "The Mature Indus Phase at Nausharo as seen from a block of Period III" in "South Asian Archaeology 1993"
- Jarrige, J.F., ed., "Excavations at Mehrgarh – Nausharo, 22nd Season, 1995 – 1996"
- Lal, B.B., "The Earliest Civilization of South Asia"
- Mariani, Luca, "The Eastern Residential Area at Shahr-i Sokhta" in "South Asian Archaeology 1989"
- Possehl, G.L. and D.P. Mehta, "Excavations at Rojdi, 1992 – 93" in "South Asian Archaeology 1993"
- Thapar, B.K., "Recent Archaeological Discoveries in India"
Trade and Interaction with other Civilizations
Crafts and Technology of Indus Civilization
Asko Parpola (born 1941) is a Finnish Indologist and Sindhologist, current professor emeritus of Indology and South Asian Studies at the University of Helsinki. He specializes in the Indus script.
Parpola is a brother of the Akkadian language epigrapher Simo Parpola. He is married to Marjatta Parpola, who has authored a study on the traditions of Kerala's Nambudiri Brahmins.
Parpola's research and teaching interests fall within the following topics:
- Indus Civilization / Indus script and religion / Corpus of Indus Seals and Inscriptions
- Veda / Vedic ritual / Samaveda / Jaiminiya Samaveda texts and rituals / Purva-Mimamsa
- South Asian religions / Hinduism / Saiva and Sakta tradition / Goddess Durga
- South India / Kerala / Tamil Nadu / Karnataka
- Sanskrit / Malayalam / Kannada / Tamil / Prehistory of Indian languages
- Prehistoric archaeology of South Asia and (in broad sense) Central Asia / Coming of the Aryans
Two significant contributions of Parpola, to the field of decipherment of the Indus script, are the creation of the now universally used classification of Indus valley seals, and the proposed, and much-debated, decipherment of the language of the script.
Main article: Indus script
According to Parpola the Indus script and Harappan language are "most likely to have belonged to the Dravidian family". Parpola led a Finnish team in the 1960s-80s that vied with Knorozov's Soviet team in investigating the inscriptions using computer analysis. Based on a proto-Dravidian assumption, they proposed readings of many signs, some agreeing with the suggested readings of Heras and Knorozov (such as equating the "fish" sign with the Dravidian word for fish "min") but disagreeing on several other readings. A comprehensive description of Parpola's work until 1994 is given in his book Deciphering the Indus Script.
Asko Parpola received the Kalaignar M. Karunanidhi Classical Tamil Award for 2009 on June 23, 2010 at the World Classical Tamil Conference at Coimbatore.
- 1994: Deciphering the Indus Script, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 9780521430791
- 2015: The Roots of Hinduism: The Early Aryans and the Indus Civilization, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-022692-3
- 2008: Is the Indus script indeed not a writing system? In: Airāvati: Felicitation volume in honour of Iravatham Mahadevan: 111–31. VARALAARU.COM, Chennai.