Revision Process: Improving the Strength of Your Paper
Now that a few days have passed since your sigh of relief after completing your rough draft, take a deep breath, and dive into the revision process. If you have not taken a few days off, do so before beginning your revisions. The break gives you better perspective on how well you convey your message.
The revision process involves several steps:
- Deleting information
- Adding information
- Clarifying sections
- Examining your content
- Looking at sentence structure and syntax
With so many steps, you want to tackle each area individually. Do not try to barge through your research paper during the revision process to fix everything at once. Instead, take each aspect of the process on its own. Read your paper out loud slowly to pinpoint areas that need improvement more easily. As you read, ask yourself a series of questions that help you identify areas that need changes.
Revision process question #1: What is your main point?
Making sure your main point is clear during the revision process involves examining your thesis statement. Read your introduction paragraph, and set the paper aside. Can you summarize your thesis and the main points to support it? Does the introduction let you know what you can expect to read in the rest of your paper? If you cannot answer yes to those questions, spend some time clarifying your thesis and reworking your introduction paragraph.
Revision process question #2: Does your paper address your audience appropriately?
Part of the revision process is ensuring your paper addresses your audience in the right way. When considering your audience, look at both the vocabulary you use and the concepts you introduce.Can someone who is unfamiliar with your topic understand your paper? If you cannot answer yes, spend some time explaining confusing concepts and using easier-to-understand vocabulary, or define the vocabulary you do use.
Revision process question #3: What is the purpose or goal of your paper?
This step in the revision process involves easily identifying the goal of your paper. This should be clear while reading your paper. Are you arguing for or against a position, evaluating existing research, comparing your research to existing research, applying the research to a particular situation and attempting to draw conclusions or something else? You know the answer before reading your paper while revising, but does the content of your paper give you the right answer?
Revision process question #4: Is your thesis supported with evidence?
This step in the revision process involves looking at the supporting evidence in the body paragraphs of your paper. Is your thesis supported by the evidence you present? Is there sufficient evidence to support the position you take or any claims you make? Is all information that requires in-text citations properly cited? If you cannot answer yes to these questions, work on supplying more evidence and ensuring it is properly cited. This is the step where you can incorporate more evidence and supporting details if you did not include them while writing the rough draft.
Revision process question #5: Is supporting evidence relevant?
Looking at the evidence during the revision process is also about making sure it is relevant to the thesis. If you find pieces of information or ideas that do not relate to the thesis, omit that information. If it is a large portion of your paper, revise and clarify your thesis statement to reflect the change. Ultimately, you should be able to answer “yes” when you ask yourself this question: Is everything in my paper relevant to my thesis?
Revision process question #6: Is your vocabulary appropriate?
The revision process also involves examining your vocabulary choices. Do you use consistent vocabulary throughout the entire paper? Do you use the same word repeatedly where a synonym works just as well? Do you leave words undefined that should be defined? Are you descriptive enough? Do you use too many pronouns? Are there portions that are wordy, vague or contain words that are used incorrectly? Is anything confusing? Use this step in the revision process to make sure you can answer these questions correctly, and make revisions until your vocabulary is clear, free of awkward pauses and strong.
Revision process question #7: Are there grammatical and spelling errors?
Reading to correct grammatical and spelling errors is an important part of the revision process. If grammar is not your strong suit, consider asking someone else to proofread it for you, or take it to a writing center for review. You want your final revision to be free of both types of these errors. Make sure you are checking the spelling of all words because most spell checkers do not catch all misspelled words, missing or duplicate words or erroneous words that result from typos. Also ensure your grammar, mechanics and punctuation is up to par.
Revision process question #8: Do you wrap up the conclusion effectively?
Looking at your conclusion is also part of the revision process. When looking at the conclusion, consider whether it is backed up by the content of your paper? Does it summarize your thesis and the main points? Does it leave your readers with something to think about after reading the entire paper? Is the thesis resolved in some fashion? Remember your conclusion is the last chance to leave an impression with readers, so make sure it is powerful and appropriate while it draws your topic to a close.
You should engage in the revision process over a longer period of time. Trying to pinpoint all the areas that need improvement in one read-through of your paper is not only difficult, it is almost impossible. Remember to read slowly and carefully while reading your words out loud. Make notes where improvements are needed. After working through one revision, set the paper aside, and then go through the process again. Expect to complete several revision drafts as you work to finalize your paper, always remembering to take your time and think critically.
Once you have your first draft, it will require revision. To determine what needs reworking, read the entire paper. What works? What doesn't? Now, get more specific. Working through paragraph by paragraph, ask yourself the purpose of each in terms of the thesis.
During the revising part of the writing process, you have the opportunity to step back from your text and make changes so readers can more clearly understand. When you are revising you are making sure your information is well organized, appropriate and complete. This is your opportunity to remove unnecessary text, rearrange paragraphs, or add sections or paragraphs. You may even find it necessary to do more research for a particular part of your paper. That is all part of the process.
Revise for content first. If you have received a rubric for the assignment, take some time to look it over next to your paper to make sure you have fulfilled all the requirements. Do not do any other revisions until the content revision is complete. Ask yourself the following questions. If your answer to any of these questions is no (or even maybe), focus on developing or revising your content before moving on.
- Explained why I conducted this research?
- Clarified how this research fits into other research?
- Given all necessary details?
- Reported results?
- Confirmed the logic of my reasoning and inference?1
Next, revise for organization. After you feel comfortable with your content, consider the organization of your draft. See Revising for Organization to learn strategies for improving the structure of your paper and the logical presentation of your ideas.
Finally, focus on the surface level. After you've revised for content and organization, turn your attention to the surface level of your paper. In this final stage of revision, you should look for ways to improve the clarify, consistency, and correctness of your writing on the level of the sentence and word. Edit for grammar, word choice, correct citations, and similar errors in this stage. Use the following list to fine-tune your language.
Improve clarity and consistency by:
- incorporating strong, active verbs
- replacing nominalizations (nouns made from verbs) with strong verbs
- reducing "there are" and "it is" constructions
- deleting excessive and unnecessary phrases (I believe, in other words, etc.)
- replacing vague words with precise words or phrases
- reducing wordiness
- maintaining appropriate tense
- using parallel structure
1These revision tips incorporate suggestions from Donald Zimmermann and Dawn Rodrigues's Research and Writing in the Disciplines. (Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich College Publisher, 1992.)