This article is about the People's Republic of China. For the Republic of China, see Taiwan. For other uses, see China (disambiguation).
"PRC" redirects here. For other uses, see PRC (disambiguation).
|People's Republic of China|
Area controlled by the People's Republic of China shown in dark green; claimed but uncontrolled regions shown in light green.
39°55′N116°23′E / 39.917°N 116.383°E / 39.917; 116.383
|Official languages||Standard Chinese[b]|
|Official script||Simplified Chinese[c]|
|Religion||See Religion in China|
• General Secretary
• Congress Chairman
• Conference Chairman
• First Secretary of the Party Secretariat
• Secretary of the Discipline Inspection Commission
• First Vice Premier
|Legislature||National People's Congress|
• First pre-imperial dynasty
|c. 2070 BCE|
• First imperial unification
• Republic established
|1 January 1912|
• People's Republic declared
|21 September 1949|
• Proclamation of the People's Republic
|1 October 1949|
• Admitted to the United Nations
|25 October 1971|
• Current constitution
|4 December 1982|
• Last polityadmitted
|20 December 1999|
|9,596,961 km2 (3,705,407 sq mi)[f] (3rd)|
• Water (%)
• 2016 estimate
|1,403,500,365  (1st)|
• 2010 census
|145/km2 (375.5/sq mi) (83rd)|
|GDP (PPP)||2017 estimate|
|$23.122 trillion (1st)|
• Per capita
|GDP (nominal)||2017 estimate|
|$11.938 trillion (2nd)|
• Per capita
|HDI (2016)|| 0.738|
high · 90th
|Currency||Renminbi (yuan; ¥)[h] (CNY)|
|Time zone||China Standard Time(UTC+8)|
|Drives on the||right[i]|
|ISO 3166 code||CN|
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitarysovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion. Covering approximately 9,600,000 square kilometers (3,700,000 sq mi), it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area,[j] depending on the source consulted. China also has the most neighbor countries in the world. Governed by the Communist Party of China, it exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities (Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, and Chongqing), and the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau.
China emerged as one of the world's earliest civilizations, in the fertile basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain. For millennia, China's political system was based on hereditary monarchies, or dynasties, beginning with the semi-legendary Xia dynasty in 21st century BCE. Since then, China has expanded, fractured, and re-unified numerous times. In the 3rd century BCE, the Qin unified core China and established the first Chinese dynasty. The succeeding Han dynasty saw some of the most advanced technology at that time, including papermaking and the compass, along with agricultural and medical improvements. The invention of gunpowder and printing in the Tang dynasty completed the Four Great Inventions. Tang culture spread widely in Asia, as the new maritime Silk Route brought traders to as far as Mesopotamia and Somalia. Dynastic rule ended in 1912 with the Xinhai Revolution, as a republic replaced the Qing dynasty. The Chinese Civil War led to the break up of the country in 1949, with the victorious Communist Party of China founding the People’s Republic of China on the mainland while the losing Kuomintang retreated to Taiwan, a dispute which is still unresolved.
Since the introduction of economic reforms in 1978, China's economy has been one of the world's fastest-growing. As of 2016[update], it is the world's second-largest economy by nominal GDP and largest by purchasing power parity (PPP). China is also the world's largest exporter and second-largest importer of goods. China is a recognized nuclear weapons state and has the world's largest standing army and second-largest defense budget. The PRC is a member of the United Nations, as it replaced the ROC as a permanent member of the UN Security Council in 1971. China is also a member of numerous formal and informal multilateral organizations, including the WTO, APEC, BRICS, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO), the BCIM and the G20. China is a great power and a major regional power within Asia, and has been characterized as a potential superpower.
Main article: Names of China
The English word "China" is first attested in Richard Eden's 1555 translation[k] of the 1516 journal of the PortugueseexplorerDuarte Barbosa.[l] The demonym, that is, the name for the people, and adjectival form "Chinese" developed later on the model of Portuguese chinês and French chinois.[m] Portuguese China is thought to derive from PersianChīn (چین), and perhaps ultimately from SanskritCīna (चीन).Cīna was first used in early Hindu scripture, including the Mahābhārata (5th century BCE) and the Laws of Manu (2nd century BCE). In 1655, Martino Martini suggested that the word China is derived from the name of the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC), a proposal supported by many later scholars, although there are also a number of alternative suggestions.
The official name of the modern state is the "People's Republic of China" (Chinese: 中华人民共和国; pinyin: Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó). The shorter form is "China" Zhōngguó(中国), from zhōng ("central") and guó ("state"),[n] a term which developed under the Western Zhou dynasty in reference to its royal demesne.[o] It was then applied to the area around Luoyi (present-day Luoyang) during the Eastern Zhou and then to China's Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state under the Qing. It was often used as a cultural concept to distinguish the Huaxia people from perceived "barbarians" and was the source of the English name "Middle Kingdom". A more literary or inclusive name, alluding to the "land of Chinese civilization", is Zhōnghuá(中华). It developed during the Wei and Jin dynasties as a contraction of "the central state of the Huaxia". Before the PRC's establishment, the proposed name of the country was the People's Democratic Republic of China (simplified Chinese: 中华人民民主共和国; traditional Chinese: 中華人民民主共和國; pinyin: Zhōnghuá Rénmín Mínzhǔ Gònghéguó) during the first CPPCC held on 15 June 1949. During the 1950s and 1960s, after the defeat of the Kuomintang in the Chinese Civil War, it was also referred to as "Communist China" or "Red China", to be differentiated from "Nationalist China" or "Free China".
Main articles: History of China and Timeline of Chinese history
Main article: Chinese prehistory
Archaeological evidence suggests that early hominids inhabited China between 2.24 million and 250,000 years ago. The hominid fossils of Peking Man, a Homo erectus who used fire, were discovered in a cave at Zhoukoudian near Beijing; they have been dated to between 680,000 and 780,000 years ago. The fossilized teeth of Homo sapiens (dated to 125,000–80,000 years ago) have been discovered in Fuyan Cave in Dao County, Hunan. Chinese proto-writing existed in Jiahu around 7000 BCE,Damaidi around 6000 BCE,Dadiwan from 5800–5400 BCE, and Banpo dating from the 5th millennium BCE. Some scholars have suggested that the Jiahu symbols (7th millennium BCE) constituted the earliest Chinese writing system.
Early dynastic rule
Further information: Dynasties in Chinese history
According to Chinese tradition, the first dynasty was the Xia, which emerged around 2100 BCE. The dynasty was considered mythical by historians until scientific excavations found early Bronze Age sites at Erlitou, Henan in 1959. It remains unclear whether these sites are the remains of the Xia dynasty or of another culture from the same period. The succeeding Shang dynasty is the earliest to be confirmed by contemporary records. The Shang ruled the plain of the Yellow River in eastern China from the 17th to the 11th century BCE. Their oracle bone script (from c. 1500 BCE) represents the oldest form of Chinese writing yet found, and is a direct ancestor of modern Chinese characters.
The Shang were conquered by the Zhou, who ruled between the 11th and 5th centuries BCE, though centralized authority was slowly eroded by feudal warlords. Many independent states eventually emerged from the weakened Zhou state and continually waged war with each other in the 300-year Spring and Autumn period, only occasionally deferring to the Zhou king. By the time of the Warring States period of the 5th–3rd centuries BCE, there were seven powerful sovereign states in what is now China, each with its own king, ministry and army.
The Warring States period ended in 221 BCE after the state of Qin conquered the other six kingdoms and established the first unified Chinese state. King Zheng of Qin proclaimed himself the First Emperor of the Qin dynasty. He enacted Qin's legalist reforms throughout China, notably the forced standardization of Chinese characters, measurements, road widths (i.e., cart axles' length), and currency. His dynasty also conquered the Yue tribes in Guangxi, Guangdong, and Vietnam. The Qin dynasty lasted only fifteen years, falling soon after the First Emperor's death, as his harsh authoritarian policies led to widespread rebellion.
Following a widespread civil war during which the imperial library at Xianyangwas burned,[p] the Han dynasty emerged to rule China between 206 BCE and CE 220, creating a cultural identity among its populace still remembered in the ethnonym of the Han Chinese.
Essay on Information and Communication Technology and Education
533 Words3 Pages
There is a dramatic increase of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) that integrates with education. All possible types of (ICT) such as; smart mobile phones, computers, are starting to replace a textbook in school and university with an online e-book. These types of technology integrated into a classroom can be a great tool to empower students to get a wide range of knowledge. Using technology in the classroom is affected in positive and negative ways. Moreover, people are divided into two different perspectives regarding this issue. Some people believe that technology will enhance student’s knowledge, whereas, other authorities are struggling to provide technology in the classroom. Indeed, the positive influence of integrating…show more content…
There is a dramatic increase of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) that integrates with education. All possible types of (ICT) such as; smart mobile phones, computers, are starting to replace a textbook in school and university with an online e-book. These types of technology integrated into a classroom can be a great tool to empower students to get a wide range of knowledge. Using technology in the classroom is affected in positive and negative ways. Moreover, people are divided into two different perspectives regarding this issue. Some people believe that technology will enhance student’s knowledge, whereas, other authorities are struggling to provide technology in the classroom. Indeed, the positive influence of integrating technology in education cannot be denied due to the facilitators for communication and improvement of education.
Firstly, students and instructors are comfortable with consolidating technology in instructional standards. Because, Information is accessed easily by technology, and it helps students save more time. It expands and maximizes and gives deeper knowledge. For instant, when the teacher asks his students to search for a topic, students will quickly search on the Internet and gives the teacher their answers within fewer minutes. Moreover, technology allows every resource around the world to be part of students instructional day, and even if the students are going home by bus or car, they can still be in touch with your resources and