Investiture Controversy Essay Topics


Gregory VII: Dictatus Papae 1090

The Dictatus Papae was included in Pope's register in the year 1075. Some argue that it was written by Pope Gregory VII (r. 1073-1085) himself, others argues that it had a much later different origin. In 1087 Cardinal Deusdedit published a collection of the laws of the Church which he drew from any sources. The Dictatus agrees so clearly and closely with this collection that some have argued the Dictatus must have been based on it; and so must be of a later date of compilation than 1087. There is little doubt that the principals below do express the pope's principals.

The Dictates of the Pope

  1. That the Roman church was founded by God alone.
  2. That the Roman pontiff alone can with right be called universal.
  3. That he alone can depose or reinstate bishops.
  4. That, in a council his legate, even if a lower grade, is above all bishops, and can pass sentence of deposition against them.
  5. That the pope may depose the absent.
  6. That, among other things, we ought not to remain in the same house with those excommunicated by him.
  7. That for him alone is it lawful, according to the needs of the time, to make new laws, to assemble together new congregations, to make an abbey of a canonry; and, on the other hand, to divide a rich bishopric and unite the poor ones.
  8. That he alone may use the imperial insignia.
  9. That of the pope alone all princes shall kiss the feet.
  10. That his name alone shall be spoken in the churches.
  11. That this is the only name in the world.
  12. That it may be permitted to him to depose emperors.
  13. That he may be permitted to transfer bishops if need be.
  14. That he has power to ordain a clerk of any church he may wish.
  15. That he who is ordained by him may preside over another church, but may not hold a subordinate position; and that such a one may not receive a higher grade from any bishop.
  16. That no synod shall be called a general one without his order.
  17. That no chapter and no book shall be considered canonical without his authority.
  18. That a sentence passed by him may be retracted by no one; and that he himself, alone of all, may retract it.
  19. That he himself may be judged by no one.
  20. That no one shall dare to condemn one who appeals to the apostolic chair.
  21. That to the latter should be referred the more important cases of every church.
  22. That the Roman church has never erred; nor will it err to all eternity, the Scripture bearing witness.
  23. That the Roman pontiff, if he have been canonically ordained, is undoubtedly made a saint by the merits of St. Peter; St. Ennodius, bishop of Pavia, bearing witness, and many holy fathers agreeing with him. As is contained in the decrees of St. Symmachus the pope.
  24. That, by his command and consent, it may be lawful for subordinates to bring accusations.
  25. That he may depose and reinstate bishops without assembling a synod.
  26. That he who is not at peace with the Roman church shall not be considered catholic.
  27. That he may absolve subjects from their fealty to wicked men.

translated in Ernest F. Henderson, Select Historical Documents of the Middle Ages, (London: George Bell and Sons, 1910), pp. 366-367


Henry IV: Letter to Gregory VII, Jan 24 1076

King Henry IV of Germany (1056-1106) in January 1076, condemned Gregory as a usurper.

Letter to Gregory VII (January 24, 1076)

Henry, king not through usurpation but through the holy ordination of God, to Hildebrand, at present not pope but false monk.

Such greeting as this hast thou merited through thy disturbances, inasmuch as there is no grade in the church which thou hast omitted to make a partaker not of honour but of confusion, not of benediction but of malediction. For, to mention few and especial cases out of many, not only hast thou not feared to lay hands upon the rulers of the holy church, the anointed of the Lord-the archbishops, namely, bishops and priests-but thou hast trodden them under foot like slaves ignorant of what their master is doing. Thou hast won favour from the common herd by crushing them; thou hast looked upon all of them as knowing nothing, upon thy sole self, moreover, as knowing all things. This knowledge, however, thou hast used not for edification but for destruction; so that with reason we believe that St. Gregory, whose name thou has usurped for thyself, was prophesying concerning thee when he said: "The pride of him who is in power increases the more, the greater the number of those subject to him; and he thinks that he himself can do more than all." And we, indeed, have endured all this, being eager to guard the honour of the apostolic see; thou, however, has understood our humility to be fear, and hast not, accordingly, shunned to rise up against the royal power conferred upon us by God, daring to threaten to divest us of it. As if we had received our kingdom from thee! As if the kingdom and the empire were in thine and not in God's hand! And this although our Lord Jesus Christ did call us to the kingdom, did not, however, call thee to the priesthood. For thou has ascended by the following steps. By wiles, namely, which the profession of monk abhors, thou has achieved money; by money, favour; by the sword, the throne of peace. And from the throne of peace thou hast disturbed peace, inasmuch as thou hast armed subjects against those in authority over them; inasmuch as thou, who wert not called, hast taught that our bishops called of God are to be despised; inasmuch as thou hast usurped for laymen and the ministry over their priests, allowing them to depose or condemn those whom they themselves had received as teachers from the hand of God through the laying on of hands of the bishops. On me also who, although unworthy to be among the anointed, have nevertheless been anointed to the kingdom, thou hast lain thy hand; me whoas the tradition of the holy Fathers teaches, declaring that I am not to be deposed for any crime unless, which God forbid, I should have strayed from the faith-am subject to the judgment of God alone. For the wisdom of the holy fathers committed even Julian the apostate not to themselves, but to God alone, to be judged and to be deposed. For himself the true pope, Peter, also exclaims: "Fear God, honour the king." But thou who does not fear God, dost dishonour in me his appointed one. Wherefore St. Paul, when he has not spared an angel of Heaven if he shall have preached otherwise, has not excepted thee also who dost teach other-wise upon earth. For he says: "If any one, either I or an angel from Heaven, should preach a gospel other than that which has been preached to you, he shall be damned." Thou, therefore, damned by this curse and by the judgment of all our bishops and by our own, descend and relinquish the apostolic chair which thou has usurped. Let another ascend the throne of St. Peter, who shall not practise violence under the cloak of religion, but shall teach the sound doctrine of St. Peter. I Henry, king by the grace of God, do say unto thee, together with all our bishops: Descend, descend, to be damned throughout the ages.

from MG LL, folio II, pp. 47 ff; translated by Ernest F. Henderson, Select Historical Documents of the Middle Ages, (London: George Bell and Sons, 1910), pp. 372-372


Gregory VII: First Deposition and Banning of Henry IV (Feb 22, 1076)

O St. Peter, chief of the apostles, incline to us, I beg, thy holy ears, and hear me thy servant whom thou has nourished from infancy, and whom, until this day, thou hast freed from the hand of the wicked, who have hated and do hate me for my faithfulness to thee. Thou, and my mistress the mother of God, and thy brother St. Paul are witnesses for me among all the saints that thy holy Roman church drew me to its helm against my will; that I had no thought of ascending thy chair through force, and that I would rather have ended my life as a pilgrim than, by secular means, to have seized thy throne . for the sake of earthly glory. And therefore I believe it to be through thy grace and not through my own deeds that it has pleased and does please thee that the Christian people, who have been especially committed to thee, should obey me. And especially to me, as thy representative and by thy favour, has the power been granted by God of binding and loosing in Heaven and on earth. On the strength of this belief therefore, for the honour and security of thy church, in the name of Almighty God, Father, Son and Holy Ghost, I withdraw, through thy power and authority, from Henry the king, son of Henry the emperor, who has risen against thy church with unheard of insolence, the rule over the whole kingdom of the Germans and over Italy. And I absolve all Christians from the bonds of the oath which they have made or shall make to him; and I forbid any one to serve him as king. For it is fitting that he who strives to lessen the honour of thy church should himself lose the honour which belongs to him. And since he has scorned to obey as a Christian, and has not returned to God whom he had deserted-holding intercourse with the excommunicated; practising manifold iniquities; spurning my commands which, as thou dost bear witness, I issued to him for his own salvation; separating himself from thy church and striving to rend it-I bind him in thy stead with the chain of the anathema. And, leaning on thee, I so bind him that the people may know and have proof that thou art Peter, and above thy rock the Son of the living God hath built His church, and the gates of Hell shall not prevail against it.

from Gregory VII, Reg. III, No. 10 a, translated in Ernest F. Henderson, Select Historical Documents of the Middle Ages, (London: George Bell and Sons, 1910), 376-377


The Concordat of Worms 1122

Pachal II's capitulation to Henry V did not last. The first phase of the papal-imperial struggle of the Middle ages only finally came to an end with the Concordat or Worms in 1122. The King was recognized as having the right to invest bishops with secular authority, but not with sacred authority. The struggle, however, would continue.

Privilege of Pope Calixtus II

I, bishop Calixtus, servant of the servants of God, do grant to thee beloved son, Henry-by the grace of God august emperor of the Romans-that the elections of the bishops and abbots of the German kingdom, who belong to the kingdom, shall take place in thy presence, without simony and without any violence; so that if any discord shall arise between the parties concerned, thou, by the counsel or judgment of the metropolitan and the co-provincials, may'st give consent and aid to the party which has the more right. The one elected, moreover, without any exaction may receive the regalia from thee through the lance, and shall do unto thee for these what he rightfully should. Be he who is consecrated in the other parts of the empire (i.e. Burgundy and Italy) shall, within six months, and without any exaction, receive the regalia from thee through the lance, and shall do unto thee for these what he rightfully should. Excepting all things which are known to belong to the Roman church. Concerning matters, however, in which thou dost make complaint to me, and dost demand aid-1, according to the duty of my office, will furnish aid to thee. I give unto thee true peace, and to all who are or have been on thy side in the time of this discord.

Edict of the Emperor Henry V

In the name of the holy and indivisible Trinity, I, Henry, by the grace of God august emperor of the Romans, for the love of God and of the holy Roman church and of our master pope Calixtus, and for the healing of my soul, do remit to God, and to the holy apostles of God, Peter and Paul, and to the holy catholic church, all investiture through ring and staff; and do grant that in all the churches that are in my kingdom or empire there may be canonical election and free consecration. All the possessions and regalia of St. Peter which, from the beginning of this discord unto this day, whether in the time of my father or also in mine, have been abstracted, and which I hold: I restore to that same holy Roman church. As to those things, moreover, which I do not hold, I will faithfully aid in their restoration. As to the possessions also of all other churches and princes, and of all other lay and clerical persons which have been lost in that war: according to the counsel of the princes, or according to justice, I will restore the things that I hold; and of those things which I do not hold I will faithfully aid in the restoration. And I grant true peace to our master pope Calixtus, and to the holy Roman church, and to all those who are or have been on its side. And in matters where the holy Roman church shall demand aid I will grant it; and in matters concerning which it shall make complaint to me I will duly grant to it justice.

in MG LL folio II, pp. 75 ff, translated in Ernest F. Henderson, Select Historical Documents of the Middle Ages, (London: George Bell and Sons, 1910), 408-409

This text is part of the Internet Medieval Source Book. The Sourcebook is a collection of public domain and copy-permitted texts related to medieval and Byzantine history.

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(c)Paul Halsall Jan 1996
halsall@murray.fordham.edu


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Investiture Controversy, conflict during the late 11th and the early 12th century involving the monarchies of what would later be called the Holy Roman Empire (the union of Germany, Burgundy, and much of Italy), France, and England on the one hand and the revitalized papacy on the other. At issue was the customary prerogative of rulers to invest and install bishops and abbots with the symbols of their office. The controversy began about 1078 and was concluded by the Concordat of Worms in 1122.

Background

After the fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century ad, significant changes took place within the churches of the Germanic successor states, which generally ceased to look to the pope in Rome or to ecumenical councils for guidance. Instead, nobles and, especially, anointed kings assumed numerous Christian duties, including the protection and foundation of churches and abbeys, which they had often built and endowed. Although the canon law declaring that bishops were to be elected by the clergy and people of their future diocese was never abrogated, it was ignored. Bishops and abbots were nominated and installed by rulers in a ceremony known since the second half of the 11th century as investiture. The consecration of the newly minted bishop by his ecclesiastical superior then usually followed.

When investing a bishop, the king presented him with a crosier (staff) and, since the reign of Emperor Henry III (1039–56), with a ring, saying “receive the church.” By church was meant not only the episcopal office (spiritualia) but also the pertinent rights and properties (regalia). In return the prelate swore fealty to the ruler, an action described since the late 11th century as homage (hominium or homagium). Homage obliged the bishop or abbot to assist the ruler both spiritually and materially by fulfilling the requirements of “service to the king” (servitium regis), including the payment of fees, distribution of ecclesiastical fiefs (benefices) to royal supporters at the king’s request, hospitality, military support, and court attendance as an adviser and collaborator.

As early as the 10th century, the interdependence of rulers and ecclesiastics had become particularly pronounced in the Ottonian empire. The chapters of royal collegiate churches formed something of a training ground for bishops, and the kings themselves became honorary canons at the most important cathedrals of their realms. Especially favoured churchmen were even entrusted with the office of count as well as with the rights and properties pertaining to the counties they administered. Investiture was the outward symbol of their authority. The ceremony drew the bishops closer to the emperor and made them a more reliable instrument of government than the ambitious nobles who frequently revolted against the monarchy.

Events

Until the Gregorian Reform of the 11th century, these arrangements worked most often to the benefit of all concerned and were accepted by everyone, including the popes. By midcentury, however, nominations of bishops by temporal rulers, especially those for Italian dioceses, became controversial. In large part this was due to the revival of ancient canon law and the emphasis on its universal and contemporary applicability by the resurgent papacy. Cardinal Humbert of Silva Candida (died 1061) sharply criticized the contemporary method of episcopal and abbatial elections in 1058, pointing out that it completely reversed the order envisioned by the Church Fathers, which involved notification of the emperor at the end of the process. Pope Gregory VII (1073–85), however, still accepted lay investiture at the start of his papacy, but his increasing estrangement from King Henry IV (1056–1105/6) over the sovereign’s refusal to obey papal commands eventually disrupted the traditional harmony between the two offices. In January 1076, at the assembly in Worms, Henry IV and the German and northern Italian bishops renounced their obedience to the pope and called on him to abdicate. As a result, Gregory deposed the king and excommunicated him and the bishops in February 1076. Despite a reconciliation in January 1077 at Canossa, where Henry appeared as a penitent sinner seeking the pope’s forgiveness, tensions continued, and Henry was deposed and excommunicated again in 1080.

Gregory VII eventually banned completely the investiture of ecclesiastics by all laymen, including kings. The prohibition was first promulgated in September 1077 in France by the papal legate Hugh of Die at the Council of Autun. At a council in Rome in November 1078 Gregory himself announced that clerics were not to accept lay investiture and extended and formalized the prohibition in March 1080. The renunciation of this customary prerogative was problematic for all rulers but especially for Henry IV. He now found himself opposed by an alliance of papal supporters and German princes bent on his removal from office. Civil war resulted, along with the princes’ election of an antiking, Rudolf of Rheinfelden, and Henry’s elevation of the antipopeClement III. Gregory was driven from Rome and died in exile in Salerno under the protection of his Norman vassalRobert Guiscard.

Settlement

The prohibition of investiture, however, was maintained and even extended under Gregory’s successors. In fact, the controversy became a struggle for supremacy between the institutions of the church (sacerdotium) and monarchy (regnum). Finally, under Pope Paschal II (1099–1118) the differentiation between the spiritual and the temporal-secular (regalia) aspects of the episcopal office, first adumbrated in the 1090s by the famous canon lawyer Bishop Ivo of Chartres, enabled the opposing parties to reach a compromise. For France, this was informally agreed upon in 1107; in the same year, King Henry I of England (1100–35) formally agreed to abandon the practice of investiture but was allowed to retain the right to homage from ecclesiastics for the temporalities (regalia) of a bishopric or abbey.

The dramatic capture of Paschal II by King Henry V of Germany in 1111, after negotiations over investiture failed, delayed a truce for the empire. The dispute over the procedures for the election, installation, and ordination of bishops there was not effectively ended until the pontificate of Calixtus II (1119–24), when the papacy and empire reached agreement at Worms in September 1122. According to this “concordat,” which was reluctantly ratified by the first Lateran Council in 1123, Emperor Henry V renounced investiture with ring and crosier and agreed to the free election of bishops and imperial abbots. Pope Calixtus II in turn permitted these elections of German prelates to take place in the presence of the king. In this compromise ceremony, the king, using a sceptre as a symbol, would invest the prospective bishops and abbots with the temporalities of their future sees prior to their consecration. Burgundian and Italian bishops were to be invested in this manner after their consecration. In Germany the constitutional consequences of the Concordat of Worms were far-reaching. The authoritative influence of secular and ecclesiastical princes dominated the future development of the much-weakened monarchy.

Uta-Renate Blumenthal
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