Drought is a condition when there are no rains for a long period of time. The occurrence of drought is a common sight in many parts of the country. The consequences of this condition are drastic and many times irreversible. Drought is the condition when certain parts of the world are deprived of rain for months or at times the entire season. There are several reasons that cause drought-like situations in different parts and prove to be fatal. Here are some short and long essays on Drought of varying lengths to help you with the topic. You can choose any drought essay given below:
Essay on Drought
Drought Essay – 1 (200 words)
Drought which is marked by the absence of or low rain in a particular region for a long period of time occurs because of various reasons including global warming, deforestation and many other human activities. This climatic condition can cause disastrous impact on the environment as well as the living beings. Some of the effects of drought include failure of crops, financial loss, price rise and soil degradation.
Several Indian states have been hit by drought leading to mass destruction of crops and disruption of the normal functioning of the society. Many parts have even witnessed famine leading to the death of several people due to starvation. Looking at the adversities faced by people in such areas, the government of India has come up with various drought relief plans however a lot more needs to be done to control this problem and deal with its after effects.
Some of the solutions suggested in this direction are rainwater harvesting, recycling and reuse of water, controlling deforestation, sea water desalination, cloud seeding, growing more plants and trees, stopping overall waste of water. However, most of these cannot be achieved if the general public does not support the cause. Each one should thus take it as a responsibility to contribute his/ her bit to curb the problem.
Drought Essay – 2 (300 words)
Drought, which results in the shortage of water, is mainly caused due to lack of rainfall. The situation is problematic and can prove to be fatal for those living in the drought-affected areas. It is particularly a curse for the farmers as it destroys their crops. Continuous drought-like situation also leads to the soil becoming less fertile.
Causes of Drought
There are various factors that lead to drought. Here is a look at these causes in detail:
Deforestation is said to be one of the main causes of shortage of rainfall that leads to drought. Adequate amount of trees and vegetation is required on land to limit evaporation of water, store enough water on land and attract rainfall. Deforestation and construction of concrete buildings in their place has caused a major misbalance in the environment. It lowers the capacity of the soil to hold water and increases evaporation. Both these are a cause of low rainfall.
- Low Surface Water Flow
Rivers and lakes are the main sources of surface water in various regions around the world. In extreme summers or because of usage of surface water for various human activities, the water in these sources dries down leading to drought.
- Global Warming
The negative impact of global warming on the environment is known to all. Among other issues, the emission of greenhouse gases that results in the rise in earth’s temperature has resulted in the rise in evaporation. High temperature is also a cause of wildfires that worsens the drought-condition.
Apart from these, excessive irrigation is also one of the causes of drought as it drains the surface water.
Though the causes of drought are largely known and are mostly the result of misuse of water resources and other non-environmental friendly human activities, nothing much is being done to curb this problem. It is time the governments of various countries should join hands to overcome this global issue.
Drought Essay – 3 (400 words)
Drought occurs when a region receives no or less than the average amount of rainfall leading to water shortage, failure of crops and disruption of normal activities. Various factors such as global warming, deforestation and construction of buildings have given rise to drought.
Types of Droughts
While some areas are marked by complete absence of rain for a long period of time, others receive less than the average amount of precipitation, yet others might face drought for some part of the year – So the severity and type of drought varies from place to place and from time to time. Here is a look at the different types of droughts:
- Meteorological Drought
When there is a reduction in rainfall in a region for a particular period – it can be for few days, months, seasons or year – it is said to be hit by meteorological drought. In India an area is said to be hit by meteorological drought when the annual rainfall is 75% less than the average rainfall.
- Hydrological Drought
This is basically associated with the reduction in water. Hydrological droughts are often a result of two successive meteorological droughts. These are divided into two categories:
- Surface Water Drought
- Ground Water Drought
- Soil Moisture Drought
As the name suggests, this situation involves inadequate soil moisture that hinders crop growth. This is an outcome of meteorological drought as it leads to lower water supply to soil and greater water loss due to evaporation.
- Agricultural Drought
When the meteorological or hydrological droughts lead to negative impacts on the crop yield in a region, it is said to be hit by agricultural drought.
This is said to be the most severe drought situation. People in such regions do not get any access to food and there is mass starvation and devastation. The government needs to intervene in such a situation and food is supplied to these places from other places.
- Socio-Economic Drought
This situation occurs when there is a decrease in the availability of food and loss of income due to the failure of crop and the social security and access to food for the people in such areas is at risk.
Drought is a difficult situation to deal with especially if the severity is high. Several people are affected due to drought each year. While the occurrence of drought is a natural phenomenon, we can certainly reduce the human activities that lead to such a situation. Government must also come up with effective measures to deal with its after effects.
Drought Essay – 4 (500 words)
Drought, a condition that occurs due to no or very low rainfall, has been classified into different categories including meteorological drought, famine, socio-economic drought, hydrological drought and agricultural drought. Whatever be the type of drought, it disturbs the normal functioning of the regions affected.
Impacts of Drought
The regions hit by drought take a good amount of time to recover from the disaster caused, particularly if the severity of the drought is high. Drought disrupts the day-to-day lives of the people and has a widespread impact on various sectors. Here is how this natural disaster impacts the lives of the people living in the affected region:
- Agricultural Loss
A major impact occurs on the agriculture and other related sectors as these are directly dependent on the ground and surface water. Loss of crop yields, low rate of livestock production, rise in plant disease and wind erosion are some of the major impacts of drought.
- Financial Loss for Farmers
Farmers are worst effected by drought. The crops in the drought hit areas do not yield and the farmers whose sole income is generated through farming are worst affected by this situation. In an attempt to make their ends meet, many farmers end up in debt. The cases of farmer suicides due to such situation are also common.
- Wildlife at Risk
The cases of forest fires increase during droughts and this puts the wildlife population at high risk. Forests get burnt down and many wild animals end up losing life while others lose their shelter.
- Price Rise
The prices of various cereals, fruits, vegetables rise because of low supply and high demand. The prices of food items such as jams, sauces and drinks that are produced from those particular fruits and vegetables also increase. In certain cases, goods are imported from other places to meet the demands of the people and hence the prices levied on the same are high. The retailers who offer goods and services to the farmers also face financial loss due to reduced business.
- Degradation of Soil
The soil loses moisture due to continuous drought and its quality degrades. It takes a lot of time for some areas to regain the ability to yield crops.
- Overall Impact on Environment
Damage is caused to various species of plants and animals, there is degradation of landscape quality and biodiversity is impacted. The quality of air and water is also affected due to drought. While some of these conditions are temporary others may last long and might even turn permanent.
- Public Safety at Stake
Lack of food and increased prices of different commodities may give rise to crimes such as theft and this can put public safety at stake. Conflict may also occur between water users thereby causing tension among general public.
Drought Prone Countries
Some of the countries that are more prone to drought include Albania, Afghanistan, Armenia, Bahrain, Northeast parts of Brazil, Burma, Cuba, Morocco, Iran, China, Bangladesh, Botswana, Sudan, Uganda, Somalia, Eritrea and Ethiopia.
Drought is one of the most disastrous natural calamities. Famine, that is the most severe forms of drought, ends in major socio, economic and environmental loss for the regions affected.
Drought Essay – 5 (600 words)
Drought, a condition when certain regions are faced with scarcity of water due to low or no rainfall, has been the cause of several problems in India. There are many areas in the country that are hit by drought each year while others are faced with this condition occasionally. Drought is caused due to various factors such as deforestation, global warming and inadequate surface water and has severe impact on the lives of the people living in the affected areas as well as the general health of the environment.
Drought Prone Areas in India
Many regions in the country are hit by drought each year. Statistics reveal that approximately one-sixth of the total geographical area of the country that inhabits around 12% of the population is drought prone.
One of the most drought prone states in the country is Rajasthan. As many as eleven districts in this state are hit by drought. These regions receive scanty or no rainfall and have low level of ground water. Drought is also a common phenomenon in the state of Andhra Pradesh. Almost every district here is hit by drought each year.
Here is a look at some of the other regions in the country that face frequent drought:
- Saurashtra and Kutch, Gujarat
- Coimbatore in Kerala
- Mirzapur Plateau and Palamu, Uttar Pradesh
- Kalahandi, Orissa
- Purulia, West Bengal
- Tirunelveli District, South of Vaigai River, Tamil Nadu
Possible Solutions for Drought
- Rain Water Harvesting
This is the technique of collecting and storing rainwater in tanks and natural reservoirs to use it later. Rain water harvesting must be made mandatory for all. The idea behind this is to put the available water to use.
- Sea Water Desalination
Sea water desalination must be done so that the vast amount of water stored in the sea can be used for the purpose of irrigation and other agricultural activities. The government must make major investment in this direction.
- Recycle Water
Waste water must be purified and recycled for reuse. This can be done in many ways. Small steps such as installing rain barrel, collecting the waste water from RO systems, usage of shower buckets, saving water from washing veggies and creating rain garden can help in this direction. The water collected by these means can be used to water the plants.
- Cloud Seeding
Cloud seeding is done to modify weather. It is a way to increase the amount of precipitation. Potassium iodide, silver iodide and dry ice are some of the chemicals used for the purpose of cloud seeding. The government should invest in cloud seeding to avoid drought in the areas prone to this condition.
- Plant More Trees
Deforestation and the building of concrete structures is one of the causes of scanty rainfall. Efforts must be made to plant more trees. This simple step can change the climatic conditions and also bring about other positive changes in the environment.
- Water Usage
Each one should take it as a responsibility to stop the wastage of water so that there is availability of enough water even when during times of low rainfall. Government must take steps to keep a check on the usage of water.
- Campaigns must be Run
The government must run campaigns stating the benefits of rain water harvesting, planting more trees and other measures that the general public can take to fight drought. This is a good way to spread awareness and control the problem.
Though the government has put certain drought relief plans in place however these are not enough to overcome the drastic problem of drought. It is important to take strong steps to avoid this problem. Everyone should contribute their bit to control this problem.
A disaster is an extreme disruption in the functioning of a habitat that causes widespread human, material, or environmental losses that exceed the ability of the affected population to cope with its own resources. Landslides, earthquakes, tsunami, cyclones, droughts, floods etc are some of the examples of disasters. Disaster management is the discipline by which human beings continuously make effort to mitigate the harm caused by the disasters.
Essays on disaster management
Disaster management is a topic on which students are generally asked to write essays. We are providing below essays on the same with different words limit, so the respective essay could be picked up by the students as per their requirements.
Disaster Management Essay 1 (100 words)
Disaster refers to the mishap, calamity or the grave occurrence from the natural or man-made reasons which can’t be stopped or tackled immediately by the affected community. Earthquakes, cyclones, droughts, floods etc are some of the natural disasters resulting into huge loss of lives and properties. The direct or indirect impacts of disasters, either natural or man-made are colossal damage, destruction and death.
The disaster management is the discipline by which human beings continuously makes efforts to reduce the harm caused by the disasters. India has set up many departments and organizations for the same such as national disaster management authority (NDMA). But we are yet to achieve satisfactory progress with regard to timely management of disasters. This can be done by raising adequate awareness about the ways to cope with disasters and greater co-ordination between the centre and state agencies.
Disaster Management Essay 2 (200 words)
A disaster is a sudden, calamitous event that seriously disturbs the functioning of a community or society and causes human, material, and environmental losses that exceed the community’s or society’s ability to cope with using its own resources. Though often caused by nature, disasters can have human origin as well such as major fire or leakage in a nuclear plant due to human negligence.
Disaster management is a well-planned strategy for making efforts to reduce the hazards caused by the disasters. Disaster management though does not avert or eliminate the threats; it focuses on formulating plans to decrease the effect of disasters. In India, national disaster management authority (NDMA) has been set up to coordinate responses to natural or man-made disasters across the country. NDMA runs various programs for mitigation and responsiveness for specific situations.
These include the national cyclone risk management project, school safety project, decision support system etc. But going by the lack of preparedness exposed by the outbreak of recent disasters in the country, the NDMA needs to make more organized and effective efforts to mitigate the losses caused by disasters. In fact, the society as a whole must make efforts to co-operate with the central and state agencies in coming out with a collective response to deal with disasters.
Disaster Management Essay 3 (250 words)
Disaster is a catastrophic situation in which normal pattern of life or ecosystem gets disturbed and extraordinary emergency interventions are required to save and preserve lives or environment. India is one of the most disaster prone zones in the world due to its peculiar geographical characteristics as well as the poor social conditions in which the communities live which exposes them to the frequent destruction caused by the hazards.
For India, the major hazards are earthquakes, landslides, drought, cyclones, floods, forest fires, fire accidents etc. Rapid growth in the population rate has certainly triggered the level of disasters. Natural disasters can only be mitigated but the man-made disasters can be prevented to a certain limit. India has taken many steps and has formed many organizations in order to mitigate, reduce and avoid the hazards of the disasters.
In India, the role of emergency management falls within the jurisdiction of the national disaster management authority of India (NDMA), which is doing a great job in reducing the hazardous impacts of the disaster and is operating from a government-centered approach to decentralized community participation.
But it needs much more sustained efforts to come out with a well-thought out strategy and response to minimize the colossal damage caused by disasters whenever a calamity has struck, for instance tsunami and Uttarakhand floods in recent times. We have not been able to mount adequate rescue and rehabilitation efforts to effectively deal with the situation.
Disaster Management Essay 4 (300 words)
A disaster is a serious disruption in the functioning of a community and society as a fall-out of widespread human, material, or environmental losses that exceed the ability of the affected population to cope with its own resources.
India is a disaster prone country. In fact, there is no country which is immune from disasters which can be classified as-
Types of Disasters
There are two majorly two types of disasters:
- Natural disasters
- Man-made disasters
Natural disasters are the disasters caused due to natural reasons which are beyond the control of humans including floods, hurricanes, earthquakes and volcano eruptions that have immediate impacts on human lives.
Man-made disasters also known as the complex emergencies are the disasters caused due to major accidents like fires, the breakdown of authority, looting and attacks, including conflict situations and war.
Disaster management is a continuous phenomenon of mitigating the impact of the disasters. Disaster management calls for collective and co-ordinated efforts. A number of activities need to be undertaken in the event of disaster. These include co-ordination, command and control, rapid assessment of damage, restoration of power, tele-communication and surface transport, deployment of search and rescue teams, medicals and Para-medical teams, arrangements for drinking water and food material, setting up of temporary shelters, sanitation and hygiene identification and earmarking of resources, last but not the least, maintenance of law and order is equally important.
The most vulnerable sections in these disasters are the poor. Hence it is necessary to mobilize them towards preparedness for any emergency. Quick and timely response is the essence in providing immediate relief and rescue operations, to save human lives and mitigate miseries as soon as possible.
India has set up many departments and organizations for the same i.e. National disaster management authority (ndma), national remote sensing centre (nrsc), central water commission (cwc) etc. And due to the presence of so many authorities it is not feasible for all of them to take steps in a single direction.
Disaster management has assumed great importance in recent times. To handle any unforeseen situation efficiently, we need to be well-equipped with latest technologies. It cannot avert the outbreak of disaster, but can mitigate its impact to a large extent.
Disaster Management Essay 5 (400 words)
God has created everything including land, water, air etc. Nature has several manifestations – benign as well as hostile. Sometimes, it is soothing, sometimes it is ferocious. Whenever it turns to be in its bad temper, it can bring about devastation which is known as disaster.
A catastrophic situation in which normal pattern of life and or ecosystem gets disturbed and extraordinary emergency interventions are required to save and preserve lives or environment can be termed as a disaster. Natural disasters are the manifestation of nature and they can take place anywhere anytime.
Classification of disasters:
The disasters can be classified as-
Natural disasters: A natural hazard is a natural process or phenomenon that may cause loss of life, injury or other health impacts, property damage, loss of livelihoods and services, social and economic disruption, or environmental damage. Various disasters like earthquakes, landslides, volcanic eruptions, hurricanes, floods, blizzards, tsunamis, and cyclones are all natural disasters.
Human instigated: Human-instigated disasters are the consequence of technological hazards. Examples include fires, transport accidents, oil spills and nuclear explosions/radiation. War and terrorist attacks may also be put in this category.
Disasters in India: well, there is no country which is completely free from disasters and so is India. India, due to its geographical locations & geological formations, is a highly disaster prone country.
India has faced a number of disasters, ranging from flood, earthquakes, cyclones, tsunami, drought, landslides. A few recent disasters faced by India include floods in Uttarakhand, cyclone “vardah” in Chennai, recurring earthquakes in northern India, chama earthquake in Gujarat, super cyclone in Orissa in 1999, bhuj earthquake in Gujarat in 2001, tsunami in 2004 and Mumbai-Gujarat flood in 2005. Besides, India has had to suffer technology-related tragedy in the form of gas tragedy in Bhopal in 1984. India also faced the problem of plague in Gujarat.
The direct or indirect impact of the disasters has always been deadly, destructive and damaging. They cause loss of life to the humans as well as livestock.
Disaster management is the management of resources and responsibilities in order to lessen the impact of disasters.
Disaster management in India
In India, a lot of forums, funds and organizations are functioning to mitigate the effects of the disasters like national disaster management authority (NDMA), national remote sensing centre (NRSC), Indian council of medical research (ICMR), central water commission (CWC) etc. A separate fund called as “national disaster management fund” (NDMF) is also there for exclusive mitigation.
Sometimes, due to lack of co-ordination between the central and state government as well as the absence of correct resources; the concerned forums, organizations are unable to provide the apt rehabilitation.
To handle the situation efficiently, we need to be well-equipped with latest technologies. Disaster management cannot avert the situation, but can mitigate its impact to lessen sufferings of humans, plants and animals.
Disaster Management Essay 6 (800 words)
Land, water, air etc are some of the beautiful creations of the almighty. Nature has several manifestations – smooth as well as hostile. Sometimes, it is soothing while sometimes it is ferocious. Whenever it turns to be in its bad temper, it can bring about devastation or destruction which is known as a “disaster”.
Literally, disaster refers to the mishap, calamity or the grave occurrence from either the natural or man-made reasons which can’t be stopped or tackled immediately by the affected community.
India, being very much prone to disasters due to its geographical location, earthquakes, landslides, drought, cyclones, floods, forest fires, and fire accidents are some of the major calamities that keep occurring, inflicting colossal damage. Rapid growth in the population rate and urbanization has mostly triggered the level of the disasters.
Types of disasters
The disasters can be broadly classified into two major categories:
- Natural disasters
- Man made / human instigated disasters
Natural disaster is a natural process that may cause loss of huge lives, injuries or other health impacts, property damages, loss of livelihoods and services, social and economic disruptions or massive environmental damage. Various disasters like earthquakes, landslides, volcanic eruptions, hurricanes, floods, blizzards, tsunamis, and cyclones are covered under the scope of the term natural disaster. Human instigated disaster is also known as the complex emergency and is the disaster caused due to major happenings such as fires, oil spill, breakdown of authority, looting, wars etc.
Disasters in India over a decade-at a glance
India has faced some of the most destructive disasters in past decade which can be named as under:
|Name of the event||Year||Area|
|Cyclone “hud hud”||2014||Andhra Pradesh|
|Cyclone phailin||2013||Odessa & Andhra Pradesh|
|Floods & landslides||2013||Uttarakhand & HP|
|Cyclone mahasen||2013||Tamil Nadu|
|Cyclone nilam||2012||Tamil Nadu|
|Uttarakhand floods||2012||Uttarkashi, Uttarakhand & Baageshwar|
|Cyclone thane||2011||Tamil Nadu|
|Sikkim earthquake||2011||Sikkim, West Bengal & Bihar|
|Cloudburst||2010||Leh & Ladakh|
|Drought||2009||More than 10 states|
|Kosi floods||2008||North Bihar|
|Tsunami||2004||Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Pondicherry, Andaman & Nicobar islands|
Effects of disasters in India:
The impact of natural as well as human instigated disasters is colossal death, destruction, injuries, huge loss of the lives of humans and livestock.
The impact of human activities on natural disasters:
Since a long for now, it has been noticed that modernization is leading to grave ignorance towards the environment. Environmental bylaws are being neglected by industries. Due to over-exploitation of nature, we humans have created such a situation where events like earthquakes, landslides are increasingly being elevated to the extent that they are causing massive loss in terms of human life and property.
It’s not that, every one of us is being ignorant about the environment. There are a lot of people who are very much concerned about the nature and the environment. Even, there are many NGOs which are taking the issue of global warming and pollution publically by taking out rallies and organizing several campaigns to save environment and such initiatives need to be appreciated.
Disaster management is the creation of primary and secondary plans through which people’s vulnerability to hazards can be reduced so that they can cope up with disasters. The mechanism does not avert or eliminate the threats; instead, it focuses on creating the strategies to decrease the effect of disasters.
Disaster management in India
National disaster management authority (NDMA) is the apex body which is mandated to lay down the policies and guidelines for disaster management to ensure timely an effective response towards disasters. A separate fund called as “national disaster management fund” (NDMF) is also there for exclusive mitigation.
NDMA mostly performs the following functions:
- Policies formation for disaster management
- Mitigation of disasters
- Approval of the plans laid down
- Formation of funds for the purpose of mitigation of disasters etc
- Running various programs and imparting guidelines
Prevention & control
The natural disasters are inevitable, even if we have measures to predict/ forecast the disasters we can’t stop them from happening. The best which can be done is to avoid the practices which are hazardous for the environment which are leading towards environmental degradation, while preparing plans for our disaster management.
Once a disaster strikes it leads to a massive destruction and loss of life. In case of the disasters like earthquakes, floods etc. Where a number of humans are displaced and post disaster there are a number of causalities. This is the time when the actual emergency preparedness comes into effect by giving first aid to the injured ones, providing rescue and relief operations to the victims.
To handle the situation efficiently, we need to be well-equipped with latest technologies. Also, it is of utmost importance to be prepared with a proper disaster management team which can take charge as soon as possible when the disaster strikes.
Speech on Disaster Management